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The Magic Effect Of Cavitation

The twenty-first century heralds the era of biotechnology and nanotechnology, electronics and ultrasound. The latest stands for an oscillatory motion in waves propagating particles of the medium and is characterised by a number of distinctive features compared with the vibrations of the audible range. In the ultrasonic frequency range it is relatively easy to obtain directional radiation; well to ultrasonic vibrations focusing, thereby increasing the intensity of ultrasonic oscillations in certain areas of exposure. For propagation in gases, liquids and solids ultrasound produces unique phenomena, many of which have found practical applications in various fields of science and technology. After all, the effect gave birth to the entire industry, with big players like Hilsonic, a UK-based business concentrating its efforts on ultrasonic cleaner devices and complex systems.

It’s now over a hundred years has passed since the application of ultrasonic vibrations. The first laboratory works on the study of ultrasound were performed by Russian physicist Lebedev at the end of XIX, and for the past hundred years the development and application of ultrasound technology involved in many prominent scientists in different countries.

The application

During this time the asset of humanity there were dozens of highly effective, resource-saving and environmentally friendly ultrasonic technologies – hardening, tinning and soldering, preventing the formation of scale on heat transfer surfaces, drying heat-sensitive substances, extraction of animal and vegetable raw materials, dissolution, sterilization of liquids, a fine spray of drugs, heavy fuels, and the preparation of emulsions of ultrafine suspensions, dispersion dyes, polymers and metal welding, washing, cleaning parts without using flammable or toxic solvents. Continue reading

wind-energy

Wind Energy Economy: The Numbers Tendency

Wind generators consume virtually no fossil fuel. A 1 MW wind turbine for the 20 years of operation saves about 29 thousand tons of coal or 92 thousand barrels of oil. The price of electricity produced by wind turbines depends on wind speed:

Cost of wind speed (US, 2004)

7.16 m/c 4,8 cents/kWh;

8.08 m/s 3.6 cents/kWh;

9.32 m/s 2.6 cents/kWh.

For comparison, the cost of electricity generated from coal varied in the range of 4.5-6 cents/kWh in the US. The average cost of electricity in China equaled 4 cents per kWh.

By doubling the wind power capacity the electricity produced is improved by 15%. Today, in comparison with the previous period 10 years ago wind energy became almost 160% cheaper. Interestingly, in the early 80s the cost of wind electricity in the US was estimated at $0.38.

In March 2006, Earth Policy Institute (USA) reported that in the two parts of the US the cost of wind power has become less than the cost of traditional energy. In the fall of 2005 due to rising prices for natural gas and coal the cost of wind electricity has become less than the cost of electricity produced from all the conventional sources. Austin Energy Companies in Texas and Xcel Energy in Colorado were the first ones to sell electricity generated from wind cheaper than electricity generated from conventional sources.

Functionality aspects

Wind energy sources are unregulated, which is a huge benefit for business developers. The success of wind farm development largely depends on the wind strength – an absolutely crucial factor. Accordingly, the issue of electricity from the wind turbine to the grid is characterized by large inequalities in daily and weekly, monthly, annual and long-term perspective. Given that the power system itself has load fluctuations (power peaks and dips), which regulate wind power, of course, the introduction of a significant proportion of wind power into the power system may promote its destabilization. It is clear that wind power requires a reserve power (e.g. in the form of gas turbine power plants), as well as mechanisms for smoothing the heterogeneity of its production (in the form of hydroelectric or PSP stations). Thus, the aspect has an impact on the cost of wind energy. Various power systems with great reluctance connect to turbines to the grid, which in turn led to the legislation, forcing the companies to do it.

Fortunately for many business, the maintenance costs are slowly but steadily decreased. Therefore, such industry sharks as Granada Material Handling report of price reduction by 17% in the latest two years for its hardware wind turbine services as well as wind turbine inspections.

Problems in networks and dispatching power systems due to the instability of wind turbines start working after they have reached a share in 20-25% of the total installed capacity of the system. However, according to the Spanish companies Gamesa Eolica and WinWind the accuracy forecast of energy produced by wind farm planning with hourly market day-ahead or spot mode exceeds 95%.

trustee

Understanding The Basics Of No Win No Fee System

Contingent consideration may take different forms, each of which allocates a certain risk associated with the outcome of the case. The most common linear compensation scheme implies that the client agrees to pay the lawyer a fixed proportion of any monetary benefits that received as a result of the settlement of the dispute or awarded by the court. In most of these schemes lawyer typically pays the client during the trial, knowing that the funds will not be able to return if the case is lost. Therefore, this scheme can be considered remuneration as follows: a fixed cash payment plus a share of the monetary benefits to be received later. Nonlinear compensation schemes are also quite common, usually in these schemes the percentage of contingent consideration decreases with increasing the monetary benefits. In other schemes, the value of the remuneration, acquired by a lawyer depends on whether the case settled or a court decision is made; the effort of the lawyer (estimated in the number of hours spent) may also be taken into account. If the client is not inclined to take risks, he would prefer to share the risk with the lawyer and choose a contract with contingent consideration. But the client is not able to convince the lawyer that the submitted information corresponds to the real state of affairs until the documents are submitted. Therefore, the lawyer may fear that if he agrees to conduct business for contingent consideration, after an expensive collection of necessary documents the case may appear to be fruitless. In this connection, the client will hardly be able to find a lawyer who agrees to conduct business for a reasonable fee. A lawyer can set the size of remuneration, based on its assessment of the likelihood that the case would be unsound and the reward that he will ask for will be determined taking into account the risk. But for the customer, who risk losing the case is lower than average risk, the requested attorney fee is too high. The exceptions are rare, yet they are possible. Thus, making a choice in favor of partnering with an ambitious company, paving its way to the top league may be pay for itself. Forster Dean may be the right agency to team up with – being one of the largest UK no win no fee agencies, it offers quite fair and reasonable terms, and running a good number of offices across the country: Continue reading